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Diabetes in 21st Century

Diabetes is rapidly emerging as a major public health problem in India. Not only in urban areas but also in the rural areas are affected. India leads the world with the largest number of people with diabetes being the diabetes capital of the world. Currently, there are around 6.5 crores patients with diabetes in India and the number is expected to touch 10 crores by 2030.Today’s modernization and westernization make India the Diabetes Capital of the World.

Gujarat is having the second highest number of diabetics in the country after Tamil Nadu.Though, no exact figures were available for diabetics in the state, their number might be around13 percent of the total population that is close to 60 lakh. In Ahmedabad alone, the number of diabetics could be around 8-10 lakh.

Diabetes is slow in onset, most of the people are asymptomatic and as a result of this 66% remain undiagnosed and this causes a delay in the diagnosis by 8–12 years. 50 percent diabetic patients have complications at the time of diagnosis. Hence, diabetes is called as “Silent Killer”.

Diabetes affects all the organs in the body from Head to Toe. Effect of diabetes on eyes is called as ‘Diabetic Retinopathy’. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. 10-25 percent of all people with diabetes develop severe kidney diseases. 60-70 percent of people with diabetes have mild-to- severe forms of diabetic nerve damage. There is a 15–40-fold increased risk for leg amputation in the diabetic compared to non-diabetic population.People with diabetes are 2–6-fold more likely to have coronary heart disease. People with diabetes are 2–4-fold more likely to have a stroke.

Maintaining good control of diabetes can reduce burden of all these complications. Diabetic education is must to keep the disease under control. In order to educate the public about diabetes various awareness programs are conducted. They include: exhibitions, film shows, diabetes detection camps, seminars, film shows, Television & Radio Programs, publication of features & stories in the leading news papers and magazines etc.,

November 14th is celebrated as World diabetes day. On this day, lot of public awareness program and free camps are done to sensitize people about diabetes and related complications.

Symptoms:

  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Genital infection
  • Blurring of vision

  • How to diagnose?

  • Blood sugar testing at fasting state and then2 hours after glucose ingestion is diagnostic.

  • Treatment:

  • Life style modification
  • Medicines as prescribed by doctor
  • Regular check up of blood sugar
  • Annual check up for diabetic complications

  • Test

    Frequency

    Target

    FBS

    Every fortnightly

    70-110 mg/dl

    PPBS

    Every fortnightly

    < 160 mg/dl

    HbA1c

    Every Quarter

    6.5%

    Lipid Profile

    Every 6 months

    LDL <100 mg/dl, TG <150 mg/dl

    Creatinine

    Annually

    0.6-1.2 mg/dl

    Urine Micro-albumin

    Annually

    <30 mg/dl

    Fundus (Eye test)

    Annually

     

    ECG

    Annually